We resolve issues associated with defects in solids, failure analysis, thin-film composition,
microstructure, surface topography, and other material-related concerns.

The analytical techniques utilized can provide the following information:
  •     Surface morphology/topography and roughness
  •     Surface elemental analysis
  •     Surface chemical bonding
  •     Depth profiling
  •     Bulk elemental analysis
  •     Film thickness and optical constants
  •     Microscopy and imaging
  •     Crystallographic structure
  •     Thin film density measurement

Analytical Techniques:

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) / Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX)    
FE-SEM is used for high-magnification imaging of sample surfaces, characterization of surface morphology, and
measurement of fine features.  EDX is used for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis with a typical
accuracy of <3%.

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)               
TEM is used to establish the microstructure of materials with very high spatial resolution as well as provide
information on morphology, crystal structure and defects, crystal phases and composition.

Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)
SPM is used to provide a three-dimensional view of the surface topology, surface roughness, grain size, and grain
size distribution with a lateral resolution of 1-2 nm and a vertical resolution of 0.01 nm. The SPM offers multiple
modes, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical force microscopy (ECAFM) and scanning
tunneling microscopy (STM).

X-ray Diffraction (XRD)                
XRD is used to provide crystal structure information, particularly the identification of structural phases and preferred

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)                
XRF is used in the elemental composition measurement of bulk and thin film materials.

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) / X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
AES is used to determine the elemental composition of surfaces with high spatial resolution. Compositional depth
profiles can also be obtained by sputtering through the desired layers during analysis.  XPS is used for surface
elemental analysis and chemical bonding information. Compositional depth profiles can also be obtained by
sputtering through the desired layers during analysis.

Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy                 
FTIR is used to determine the molecular structure and identity of chemical substances.

UV-Visible Spectroscopy                
UV-Visible Spectroscopy is used to provide information on the structure, formulation and stability of materials in
solutions at concentrations in the parts per million(ppm) range.

X-ray Reflectivity (XRR)                
XRR is used for accurate measurements of thickness, interface roughness, and layer density of crystalline or
amorphous thin and multi-layered films.

Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA)                
NRA is used to provide concentration vs. depth distribution especially for light chemical elements from hydrogen to
fluorine in a solid thin film at sensitivity levels of ~100 ppm and a depth resolution of ~100 A.

Ellipsometry is used to characterize the thickness and optical constants of thin-film materials.

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass- Spectrometer (ICP-MS)
AA And ICP-MS is used for the determination of metals in a wide variety of samples (i.e. drinking water,
groundwater, other aqueous samples, industrial wastes, soils, sludge, sediments and other solid samples) It can
also be used in different application areas such as Environmental, Chemicals/Petrochemicals, Pharmaceutical,
Semiconductor Manufacturing and Metallurgy.

Electron Microprobe Analysis (EPMA)
EPMA is used to quantitatively measure elements from Be to U with the assistance of wavelength-dispersive
spectrometers (WDS) and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) for rapid analyses.  The technique combines
micron-scale chemical analyses with electron microscopy and is capable of large- and small-scale element mapping
of specimens.
Analytical Services